This is a generic error that occurs whenever the ClickOnce installer isn't able to download all of the files; it just assumes that one of the files is corrupted.
To investigate the issue, install and run Fiddler so you can monitor the files that are being downloaded, and watch for the failure. Most of the HTTP requests will return an application/octet response type (a binary file) but the last one will not.
A likely issue is that antivirus software, either on the webserver filtering outgoing traffic, on your PC filtering incomming traffic, or in the middle filtering traffic passing through, is getting a false-positive match against one of the dlls. In Fiddler, you'll see that an html page was returned instead of the file. You can see the html in Fiddler, and you can also copy the url to your browser to try to download the file yourself and see the error message. This is also handy for reproducing the error without having to go through the entire install process, and for verifying that it's been fixed.